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Popular Articles

1. Music and the Short Film
How to obtain the right music for your piece, the importance of a score designed around cues, sample based music and working with a composer.


2. Lavalier Microphones
lavalier microphones; history, transparent and proximity lavaliers, specific lavaliers and uses. mics include: Sony ECM-50, Electrovoice CO-90, Sennheiser MKE-2.


3. Shotgun Microphones
shotgun microphone strategy as well as types and best usages. microphones discussed include audio technica 4071, 4073a and 835, sennheiser 816, 416 and ME-80.


4. SMPTE timecode
Indepth technical discussion of SMPTE time code, drop-frame and non drop-frame TC, time code generation, external and jam-sync, Denecke time code slates, sync boxes, sync pulse and audio resolving.


5. Sound Consistency
Dr. Fred Ginsburg, CAS offers valuable advice on how to achieve professional sound consistency in film production.


6. Narration
narration use as a story device as part of a film sound track, definitions of "sync to picture" and "wild" narration from a script as well as voice of god and wild line narration.


7. SFX
working with film sound effects (sfx): hard and soft effects, sound effect libraries, stealing SFX, foley effects and dubbing are discussed.


8. The Final Mix
final mix of film sound track; pre-dubs, pyramid progression to reduce tracks, final mixdown, DM & E and stereo mixing.


9. Audio Timecode
Dr. Fred Ginsburg, CAS discusses SMPTE audio timecode (TC) and if it is necessary in a film production. Denecke slates, Fostex DAT or Nagra and NLE are covered.


10. Boom Techniques
Another great article by Dr. Fred Ginsburg, CAS that covers the practical and technical details on boom mic techniques for movie production sound tracks.


11. Dialogue
dialogue definitions are discussed: lip sync, wild sync, production dialogue, ADR and looping. Sound track building is also addressed.


12. Sound Recording
An indepth look at film production sound recording; microphone selection, perspective, recording situations and noise reduction.


13. Wind Screens
reducing rumble, acoustic/contact wind noise with shockmounts and windscreens. Also: tips on using foam, rubber bands and other items for a clean production track.


14. Syncing Sound
sound syncing; topics covered include 60 Hz sync pulse, crystal sync, audio time code, Nagra IV-STC, HHB and Fostex DAT and Aaton Master Clocks.


15. Introduction to the Sound Track
An introduction to the elements of the sound track and the composition of each.


16. Music
music as a sound track element is discussed, differences between extraneous and practical music, canned and original score, needle drop and blanket rights.


17. Post Sound Workflow
Steps in the post production audio process and the roles involved with each step.


18. The Sound Track
film sound track: a complete overview of building the sound track: duping, picture editing, checker boarding, equalization, overlaps, sfx, foley and music editing.


19. Microphone Basics
dynamic and electret condenser microphones. Some microphone brands discussed: Shure, Electrovoice, Beyer, Audio Technica, Sennheiser, Schoeps and Neumann.


20. Sound Design and Effects
The role of the sound designer, different types of effects and their usage in the effects track.


21. Location Sound
An introduction to location sound, microphone selection and the job of the sound mixer.


22. Scouting for Sound
By Fred Ginsburg, CAS. The crucial issues to be concerned with when scouting a location for sound, including acoustics, ambient noise and time of day.


23. Microphone Patterns
basic microphone pick-up patterns are covered, including cardioid, supercardioid and hypercardioid. M-S stereo, bidirectional, X and Y stereo.


24. Sound for DV
An in-depth look at sound for digital video camcorders, provided by Canon. Technically intensive but still understandable if you have a rudimentary understanding of sound and digital technology.


25. sound channels
film production sound channels (equipment packages) break down and usages: location, stage, ENG and one mic sound packages.


26. Sound Accessories
essential sound items for indie producers and sound mixers to budget for: wireless mics and batteries


27. Introduction to Microphones
listing of shock mounts, long and short shotgun mics, lavalier and cardioid microphones. mics covered include Schoeps, Sennheiser, Audio Technica, Neumann and Sony.


28. Production Mixing
Dr. Fred Ginsburg, CAS sketches an overview of production mixing; mixing panels, dB levels, VU meters, headphone monitoring, signal recording and recording priorities.


29. Sound Prep
pre-production for sound mixers: location scouting, sound crew types, budgeting for crew, sound crew job descriptions, payment and types of sound channels.


30. Sound Expendables
Dr. Fred Ginsburg, CAS, offers some practical advice on budgeting tape usage, stock allocation, battery usage and sundry items for a film or video production.


31. Sound for Video
finishing sound for video; splitting the production track into separate elements, "sweetening", "off off-line" first edit. also covered loading camera original and audio, syncing, first picture edit, multi-track and checkerboarding.


Recent Articles

1. Music and the Short Film
How to obtain the right music for your piece, the importance of a score designed around cues, sample based music and working with a composer.


2. Sound Design and Effects
The role of the sound designer, different types of effects and their usage in the effects track.


3. Location Sound
An introduction to location sound, microphone selection and the job of the sound mixer.


4. Post Sound Workflow
Steps in the post production audio process and the roles involved with each step.


5. Introduction to the Sound Track
An introduction to the elements of the sound track and the composition of each.


6. Sound for DV
An in-depth look at sound for digital video camcorders, provided by Canon. Technically intensive but still understandable if you have a rudimentary understanding of sound and digital technology.


7. Boom Techniques
Another great article by Dr. Fred Ginsburg, CAS that covers the practical and technical details on boom mic techniques for movie production sound tracks.


8. Sound Accessories
essential sound items for indie producers and sound mixers to budget for: wireless mics and batteries


9. Sound for Video
finishing sound for video; splitting the production track into separate elements, "sweetening", "off off-line" first edit. also covered loading camera original and audio, syncing, first picture edit, multi-track and checkerboarding.


10. The Sound Track
film sound track: a complete overview of building the sound track: duping, picture editing, checker boarding, equalization, overlaps, sfx, foley and music editing.


11. Sound Prep
pre-production for sound mixers: location scouting, sound crew types, budgeting for crew, sound crew job descriptions, payment and types of sound channels.


12. sound channels
film production sound channels (equipment packages) break down and usages: location, stage, ENG and one mic sound packages.


13. Dialogue
dialogue definitions are discussed: lip sync, wild sync, production dialogue, ADR and looping. Sound track building is also addressed.


14. Shotgun Microphones
shotgun microphone strategy as well as types and best usages. microphones discussed include audio technica 4071, 4073a and 835, sennheiser 816, 416 and ME-80.


15. Introduction to Microphones
listing of shock mounts, long and short shotgun mics, lavalier and cardioid microphones. mics covered include Schoeps, Sennheiser, Audio Technica, Neumann and Sony.


16. SMPTE timecode
Indepth technical discussion of SMPTE time code, drop-frame and non drop-frame TC, time code generation, external and jam-sync, Denecke time code slates, sync boxes, sync pulse and audio resolving.


17. Production Mixing
Dr. Fred Ginsburg, CAS sketches an overview of production mixing; mixing panels, dB levels, VU meters, headphone monitoring, signal recording and recording priorities.


18. The Final Mix
final mix of film sound track; pre-dubs, pyramid progression to reduce tracks, final mixdown, DM & E and stereo mixing.


19. Music
music as a sound track element is discussed, differences between extraneous and practical music, canned and original score, needle drop and blanket rights.


20. Narration
narration use as a story device as part of a film sound track, definitions of "sync to picture" and "wild" narration from a script as well as voice of god and wild line narration.


21. Syncing Sound
sound syncing; topics covered include 60 Hz sync pulse, crystal sync, audio time code, Nagra IV-STC, HHB and Fostex DAT and Aaton Master Clocks.


22. Audio Timecode
Dr. Fred Ginsburg, CAS discusses SMPTE audio timecode (TC) and if it is necessary in a film production. Denecke slates, Fostex DAT or Nagra and NLE are covered.


23. Wind Screens
reducing rumble, acoustic/contact wind noise with shockmounts and windscreens. Also: tips on using foam, rubber bands and other items for a clean production track.


24. Microphone Patterns
basic microphone pick-up patterns are covered, including cardioid, supercardioid and hypercardioid. M-S stereo, bidirectional, X and Y stereo.


25. Microphone Basics
dynamic and electret condenser microphones. Some microphone brands discussed: Shure, Electrovoice, Beyer, Audio Technica, Sennheiser, Schoeps and Neumann.


26. Lavalier Microphones
lavalier microphones; history, transparent and proximity lavaliers, specific lavaliers and uses. mics include: Sony ECM-50, Electrovoice CO-90, Sennheiser MKE-2.


27. Sound Recording
An indepth look at film production sound recording; microphone selection, perspective, recording situations and noise reduction.


28. Sound Expendables
Dr. Fred Ginsburg, CAS, offers some practical advice on budgeting tape usage, stock allocation, battery usage and sundry items for a film or video production.


29. Sound Consistency
Dr. Fred Ginsburg, CAS offers valuable advice on how to achieve professional sound consistency in film production.


30. Scouting for Sound
By Fred Ginsburg, CAS. The crucial issues to be concerned with when scouting a location for sound, including acoustics, ambient noise and time of day.


31. SFX
working with film sound effects (sfx): hard and soft effects, sound effect libraries, stealing SFX, foley effects and dubbing are discussed.


Knowledge Base

1. Selecting a Boom Microphone
i have a question i hope you can answer. i am producing a small feature on an xl1 (with an xlr adaptor), what is a good boom mic to purchase and do YOU sell them? to rent or buy? and about how much am i looking at in terms of cost? i want a good mic with good sound. i was told that the sennheiser 416 is good. what about boom poles and zepplins? please get back to me asap.

Is there a difference between a boom mic and a shotgun mic?


2. Syncing DV to DAT
Is it true that digital video(Canon XL-1 Mini DV) runs at a different speed than DAT recordings, making the task of synching up the sound to the video very difficult? And if so, any suggestions on doing this?


3. Phone Recording
I'm making a film that requires the recording of a live phone coversation. Obviously, one end of the phone will not be hard to record. But getting the other voice on there and make it sound like authentic phone conversation is proving difficult. i have thought about just recording both people live and then cut back and forth throughout the conversation via editing, but it goes back and forth enough to make somebody dizzy. Any suggestions for a low, low budget amatuer?


4. Crystal Sync Nagras
Are all Nagra 4.2's crystal? My assumption is that they are, but it seems prices vary so much (I know that's related to condition and such). Can you tell me anything about the differences between Nagra 4.2, 4, and 4L?


5. Music Copyright 1
if I'm making a film can I used copyrighted music if I'm only going tos end it into film-festivals?